Chronological history of Mongolia

Chronological history of Mongolia

  First men appeared in Mongolia 500.000 years ago. This is a chronology retracing the main events occurred in Mongolia throughout its history.   Prehistoric period   500.000 BC: humans appear in Mongolia 4000 BC – 2000 BC: Bronze Age 2000 BC: breeding develops in Mongolia 700 BC – 500 BC: transition towards the beginning of Iron Age 400 BC: Chinese people starts to build the Great Wall to protect themselves from any incursion of the Xiongnus, main enemies of China   Xiongnus and Mongolian empires   209 BC: Modun Shanyui establishes the first Mongolian empire: Xiongnu Empire 1 – 100: Xiongnus are driven out of China 156: Xianbeis defeat the Xiongnus. Xianbei Empire becomes the most important empire of Central Asia. 317: Xianbeis conquer North China 360: end of the Xianbei Empire 386 – 533: period of the Wei Dynasty, established by the Tuoba in North China 745 – 840: period of the Uyghurs’ reign. They had defeated the Kokturks in 744. 840: Kyrgyz seize control on Uyghurs 916: beginning of the reign of Kitans, established beyond East Mongolia, Manchuria and North China 1122: Chinese defeat Kitan   The Great Mongol Empire   1162: Temujin’s birth 1189: Temujin becomes the famous Emperor Genghis Khan 1189 – 1205: Genghis Khan unifies the Mongolian nomadic tribes 1206: Genghis Khan proclaims himself leader of the Mongol Empire and begins to found his empire 1211: Genghis Khan attacks China 1215: Beijing is defeated and becomes Mongolian 1227: Genghis Khan’s death 1229: Genghis Khan’s third son, Ogodei Khan, is proclaimed second Khan 1231: Invasion of Korea 1235: Kharkhorin becomes the capital of the Mongol Empire. Marco Polo arrives in Kharkhorin right at that time. 1236 – 1240: period of offensives against Russia by Genghis Khan’s grandson, Bat Khan, and his Golden Horde 1241: Ogodei Khan’s death 1241 – 1242: Mongols invade Poland and Hungary 1246: Guyuk, Ogodei’s son, is proclaimed Khan and subdues Tibet. He dies this year. 1247: Mongolia has its first census 1251: Ogodei’s nephew, Mongke, is proclaimed Khan 1251: Mongols defeat Iran 1254: William of Rubruck arrives in Kharkhorin, Franciscan monk sent by the King Louis IX of France 1256: Mongols take Bagdad 1259: Mongke’s death 1260: Egyptian Mameluks defeat Mongols 1261: Genghis Khan’s grandson, Khubilai Khan, is proclaimed Grand Khan 1264: the capital is moved to Beijing 1271: Khubilai Khan changes the name of his empire into “Yuan” 1274 and 1281: Mongols try to invade Japan, without success 1275: Marco Polo reaches China 1276: Mongols annex Hangzhou, capital of the Song’s China 1279: Khubilai Khan achieves the conquest of the Chinese territory unifying China in his own empire. He founds the Yuan Dynasty overthrowing the Song Dynasty of South 1294: Khubilai Khan’s death 1299: Mongols invade Syria 1333: Togoontomor, last Khan of the Mongol Empire, seizes control on the Yuan Empire 1368: Mongols lose the Chinese territory. The Yuan Dynasty collapses and is replaced by the Ming Dynasty   Chronological history of Mongolia

  Fall of the Empire, domination of Manchus   1388: Chinese destroy Kharkhorin 1400 – 1454: civil war in Mongolia 1409 – 1449: Mongolia attacks China 1466: Dayan Khan unifies most Mongolian tribes 1480 – 1502: end of the control of Mongols on Russia. The Golden Horde falls. 1571: Mongols put an end to a 300-year war against Chinese 1578: Mongols convert to Tibetan Buddhism under Altan Khan’s reign. He gives the title of Dalai Lama to Sonam Gyatso. 1586: Buddhism becomes the official religion of Mongolia 1589: the construction of the first monastery of Mongolia begins: Erdene Zuu Monastery. 1641: Zanabazar is proclaimed leader of Buddhism in Mongolia 1641 – 1652: Russians defeat Buryats and win back the control of the area of Lake Baikal 1672: Mongolia invades Siberia and Russia 1691: Most Khalks Mongolians accept the Manchu sovereignty and are included in the Chinese Empire (Qing Dynasty, 1644-1911) 1728: the Sino-Russian treaty of Khyakhta redefines the Mongolian borders 1732: end of the independence of Mongolia with the defeat of the Dzungars 1750: China divides Mongolia into two parts: North becomes Outer Mongolia and South becomes Inner Mongolia 1783: Russians defeat the last reigning descendent of Genghis Khan   Independence, socialism and democracy   1 December 1911: Outer Mongolia becomes independent from China 28 December 1911: Mongolia puts in place an autonomous theocratic government 5 November 1912: a Sino-Russian treaty recognises China’s sovereignty on Mongolia 25 May 1915: Russia, China and Mongolia sign the treaty of Khyakhta that guarantees the independence of Mongolia September 1918: Chinese troops occupy Outer Mongolia March to June 1920: first steps towards the creation of the Mongolian People’s Party that forges links with the international communist movement October 1920: White Russians invade Mongolia 13 March 1921: creation of the Mongolian People’s Party July 1921: the Russian and Mongolian armies drive the White Russians out of Mongolia 11 July 1921: creation of the Provisional Popular Government of Mongolia 14 September 1921: Sukhbaatar, hero of the Revolution, announces the independence of Mongolia 5 November 1921: Soviets recognise the Provisional Popular Government 22 February 1923: Sukhbaatar’s death 31 May 1924: A Sino-Russian treaty recognises China’s sovereignty on Mongolia August 1924: the Mongolian People’s Party becomes the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party 25 November 1924: communists announce the Mongolian People’s Republic. The capital is named Ulaanbaatar (Ulan Bator in English), “red hero” referring to Sukhbaatar December 1928: Khorloogiin Choibalsan becomes the political leader 1929 – 1932: confiscation of the feudal goods and abolition of the religious communities 27 November 1934: an agreement between Mongolia and Russia authorises the entry of Soviet troops in Mongolia 1937 – 1939: religious purges 1938: closure and destruction of Buddhist monasteries 1939: Khorloogiin Choibalsan becomes an uncontested leader 1939: the Russian and Mongolian troops defeat Japanese in East Mongolia March – April 1940: Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal becomes secretary-general of the party 10 August 1945: Mongolia declares war on Japan 5 January 1946: China recognises the independence of Mongolia 27 February 1946: signature of the Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Assistance about economic and cultural cooperation between Mongolia and Soviet Union 26 January 1952: Choibalsan’s death May 1952: Tsedenbal becomes Prime Minister December 1952: signature of an agreement about economic and cultural cooperation with China 6 July 1960: new constitution 27 October 1961: Mongolia joins the United Nations 1962: condemnation of the “cult of personality” against Choibalsan 7 June 1962: Mongolia joins the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance 23 August 1984: Batmonkh becomes secretary-general of the party 12 December 1984: Dumaagiin Sodnom is elected Prime Minister April 1986: signature of long-term commercial agreement with China 27 January 1987: first diplomatic relations with United States 7 March 1989: Soviets announce the withdrawal of the troops 1992: a new constitution is written and communists win another election 1996: against all odds, the democratic coalition defeats the communists in the legislative elections 2000: turnaround: the communists defeat the democrats in the following elections        

 
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