Chronological history of Mongolia - Horseback Mongolia
Chronological history of Mongolia

Chronological history of Mongolia

  First men appeared in Mongolia 500.000 years ago. This is a chronology retracing the main events occurred in Mongolia throughout its history.  

Prehistoric period  

500.000 BC: humans appear in Mongolia

4000 BC – 2000 BC: Bronze Age

2000 BC: breeding develops in Mongolia

700 BC – 500 BC: transition towards the beginning of Iron Age

400 BC: Chinese people starts to build the Great Wall to protect themselves from any incursion of the Xiongnus, main enemies of China  

Xiongnus and Mongolian empires  

209 BC: Modun Shanyui establishes the first Mongolian empire: Xiongnu Empire

1 – 100: Xiongnus are driven out of China

156: Xianbeis defeat the Xiongnus. Xianbei Empire becomes the most important empire of Central Asia.

317: Xianbeis conquer North China

360: end of the Xianbei Empire

386 – 533: period of the Wei Dynasty, established by the Tuoba in North China

745 – 840: period of the Uyghurs’ reign. They had defeated the Kokturks in 744. 840: Kyrgyz seize control on Uyghurs

916: beginning of the reign of Kitans, established beyond East Mongolia, Manchuria and North China

1122: Chinese defeat Kitan  

The Great Mongol Empire  

1162: Temujin’s birth

1189: Temujin becomes the famous Emperor Genghis Khan

1189 – 1205: Genghis Khan unifies the Mongolian nomadic tribes

1206: Genghis Khan proclaims himself leader of the Mongol Empire and begins to found his empire

1211: Genghis Khan attacks China

1215: Beijing is defeated and becomes Mongolian

1227: Genghis Khan’s death

1229: Genghis Khan’s third son, Ogodei Khan, is proclaimed second Khan

1231: Invasion of Korea

1235: Kharkhorin becomes the capital of the Mongol Empire. Marco Polo arrives in Kharkhorin right at that time.

1236 – 1240: period of offensives against Russia by Genghis Khan’s grandson, Bat Khan, and his Golden Horde

1241: Ogodei Khan’s death

1241 – 1242: Mongols invade Poland and Hungary

1246: Guyuk, Ogodei’s son, is proclaimed Khan and subdues Tibet. He dies this year.

1247: Mongolia has its first census

1251: Ogodei’s nephew, Mongke, is proclaimed Khan

1251: Mongols defeat Iran

1254: William of Rubruck arrives in Kharkhorin, Franciscan monk sent by the King Louis IX of France

1256: Mongols take Bagdad

1259: Mongke’s death

1260: Egyptian Mameluks defeat Mongols

1261: Genghis Khan’s grandson, Khubilai Khan, is proclaimed Grand Khan

1264: the capital is moved to Beijing

1271: Khubilai Khan changes the name of his empire into “Yuan

1274 and 1281: Mongols try to invade Japan, without success

1275: Marco Polo reaches China

1276: Mongols annex Hangzhou, capital of the Song’s China

1279: Khubilai Khan achieves the conquest of the Chinese territory unifying China in his own empire. He founds the Yuan Dynasty overthrowing the Song Dynasty of South

1294: Khubilai Khan’s death

1299: Mongols invade Syria

1333: Togoontomor, last Khan of the Mongol Empire, seizes control on the Yuan Empire

1368: Mongols lose the Chinese territory. The Yuan Dynasty collapses and is replaced by the Ming Dynasty  

  Chronological history of Mongolia  


  Fall of the Empire, domination of Manchus  

1388: Chinese destroy Kharkhorin

1400 – 1454: civil war in Mongolia

1409 – 1449: Mongolia attacks China

1466: Dayan Khan unifies most Mongolian tribes

1480 – 1502: end of the control of Mongols on Russia. The Golden Horde falls.

1571: Mongols put an end to a 300-year war against Chinese

1578: Mongols convert to Tibetan Buddhism under Altan Khan’s reign. He gives the title of Dalai Lama to Sonam Gyatso.

1586: Buddhism becomes the official religion of Mongolia

1589: the construction of the first monastery of Mongolia begins: Erdene Zuu Monastery.

1641: Zanabazar is proclaimed leader of Buddhism in Mongolia

1641 – 1652: Russians defeat Buryats and win back the control of the area of Lake Baikal

1672: Mongolia invades Siberia and Russia

1691: Most Khalks Mongolians accept the Manchu sovereignty and are included in the Chinese Empire (Qing Dynasty, 1644-1911)

1728: the Sino-Russian treaty of Khyakhta redefines the Mongolian borders

1732: end of the independence of Mongolia with the defeat of the Dzungars

1750: China divides Mongolia into two parts: North becomes Outer Mongolia and South becomes Inner Mongolia

1783: Russians defeat the last reigning descendent of Genghis Khan  

Independence, socialism and democracy  

1 December 1911: Outer Mongolia becomes independent from China

28 December 1911: Mongolia puts in place an autonomous theocratic government

5 November 1912: a Sino-Russian treaty recognises China’s sovereignty on Mongolia

25 May 1915: Russia, China and Mongolia sign the treaty of Khyakhta that guarantees the independence of Mongolia

September 1918: Chinese troops occupy Outer Mongolia

March to June 1920: first steps towards the creation of the Mongolian People’s Party that forges links with the international communist movement

October 1920: White Russians invade Mongolia

13 March 1921: creation of the Mongolian People’s Party

July 1921: the Russian and Mongolian armies drive the White Russians out of Mongolia

11 July 1921: creation of the Provisional Popular Government of Mongolia

14 September 1921: Sukhbaatar, hero of the Revolution, announces the independence of Mongolia

5 November 1921: Soviets recognise the Provisional Popular Government

22 February 1923: Sukhbaatar’s death

31 May 1924: A Sino-Russian treaty recognises China’s sovereignty on Mongolia

August 1924: the Mongolian People’s Party becomes the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party

25 November 1924: communists announce the Mongolian People’s Republic. The capital is named Ulaanbaatar (Ulan Bator in English), “red hero” referring to Sukhbaatar

December 1928: Khorloogiin Choibalsan becomes the political leader

1929 – 1932: confiscation of the feudal goods and abolition of the religious communities

27 November 1934: an agreement between Mongolia and Russia authorises the entry of Soviet troops in Mongolia

1937 – 1939: religious purges

1938: closure and destruction of Buddhist monasteries

1939: Khorloogiin Choibalsan becomes an uncontested leader

1939: the Russian and Mongolian troops defeat Japanese in East Mongolia

March – April 1940: Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal becomes secretary-general of the party

10 August 1945: Mongolia declares war on Japan

5 January 1946: China recognises the independence of Mongolia

27 February 1946: signature of the Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Assistance about economic and cultural cooperation between Mongolia and Soviet Union

26 January 1952: Choibalsan’s death

May 1952: Tsedenbal becomes Prime Minister

December 1952: signature of an agreement about economic and cultural cooperation with China

6 July 1960: new constitution

27 October 1961: Mongolia joins the United Nations

1962: condemnation of the “cult of personality” against Choibalsan

7 June 1962: Mongolia joins the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

23 August 1984: Batmonkh becomes secretary-general of the party

12 December 1984: Dumaagiin Sodnom is elected Prime Minister

April 1986: signature of long-term commercial agreement with China

27 January 1987: first diplomatic relations with United States

7 March 1989: Soviets announce the withdrawal of the troops

1992: a new constitution is written and communists win another election

1996: against all odds, the democratic coalition defeats the communists in the legislative elections

2000: turnaround: the communists defeat the democrats in the following elections        





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