Mongolia from 1691 to 1911 - Manchu domination

Mongolia from 1691 to 1911 - Manchu domination

The Manchus conquered inner and outer Mongolia and integrated them to their empire. The Manchu emperor became the king of Mongolia, but most of Mongolian noblemen kept their title.

The government Qing reorganised the administration of inner Mongolia. The 24 provinces of inner Mongolia were divided in 6 regions. The Qing Empire chose a governor for outer Mongolia, who lived in Uliastai. There was another government in Ikh Khuree to administrate inner Mongolia. When western Mongolia lost against the Manchus, the latter settled the government in Khovd (1725). The Manchu government formed four provinces, among which the province of the khan Sain in tribute to his contribution in the war against Oirats.

When Mongolians converted to Buddhism in 1639, they elected a leader to rule on Buddhist Church; he had the title of Bogd. The Bogd was in charge of religious affairs, and when the Manchus arrived, they decided to keep him as official Buddhist leader. But they created a special ministery that had to control the Bogd's acts and Buddhist ceremonies. That is how the Qing Empire created an extremely elaborated administration, but also taxes and political agreements for inner and outer Mongolia.

Mongolian people resisted to Manchu imperialism with rebellions and mutinies. In 1755, many Mongolians took part in an attack that surrounded western Mongolia. Among the rebels, was the boshigt Galdan, Amarsanaa, and Chingunjav. At the beginning, the attack was a success, but Manchus get the upper hand and harshly punished the rebels. Amarsanaa ran away from Mongolia and found refuge in Russia, where he died. The others were killed.

The Manchu laws in Mongolia covered all angles of Mongolian life. The “Khalkh Juram” was the official legal document between 1709 and 1795. From 1817, “inner Mongolia's legal writings” (63 volumes of different laws) have been applied.

At the time of Manchu domination, the Mongolian literature knew a resurgence. Poets and writers produced wonderful religious texts. The most famous author was the lama Danzanravjaa, who lived in the 19th century and was a talentuous dramatist. His most famous work is “Saran khokhoo”.

The Manchu government stifled any idea of autonomy in Mongolia, and Mongolia spent 120 years under Manchu domination, as a minor region of the Qing Empire.

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