Archaeological discoveries, notably in the white cave of Bayanlig, or in Uran Khairkhan Hills (province of Bayankhongor), have evidenced traces of former human races in Mongolia. These discoveries prove that about 700.000 years ago, humans lived in Mongolia.
Some scientists think that Mongolia is the cradle of the very first human species on Earth. This idea is based upon the physical appearance of Mongolian people. Mongolians have black straight hair, a wide forehead, narrow eyes, thick lashes, a short nose, prominent cheeks, a wide chest, and a slim waistline. The first human beings were the product of climate and natural conditions of Mongolia at that period. Mongolia bears the vestiges of this past, and we can find petroglyphs and sculptures in many prehistoric sites, especially dating from Paleolithic and Bronze Age.
The sites of Zuragiin Ulaan, Khad, and of the Chuluut River show some rare examples of the art of Neolithic. Zuragiin Ulaan's petroglyphs are painted with natural ochre pigments and have resisted to time for thousands of years thanks to Mongolia's dry weather. We can see on them some human shapes and also an enigmatic “X”. At Khad, we can see some writings sculpted in the stone. Upper sculptures depict bovines domesticated and elks. In the middle, many symbols about which scientists say they depict human faces. The lower sculptures clearly depict humans.